How does the environment affect human behavior

Social behavior issues

The third observation took place on a train. The individuals that caught my interest were a mother and her daughter whom I could easily tell with their nature of communication and the similarity. The family was Caucasian. I estimated the age of the mother to be between thirty-five and forty years old while the daughter was in her adolescents. The girl was busy with her phone while the mother was trying to make conversation with her. The only responses that she was obtaining from her include “yes” “yeah” and “maybe. According to Erikson’s developmental theory, adolescents experience the identity versus role confusion stage. In this stage, teenagers are on the verge of discovering themselves in regards to their personality by analyzing their values, life goals and also beliefs. Most of the teenagers tend to rebel through their journey of fitting whereby they feel that they know better than the rest. They tend to feign conversations from adults and prefer spending more time with their peers due to the similar growth experiences (Schultz & Schultz, 2016). Furthermore, others rebel as a coping mechanism for their growth as they feel out of place and uncomfortable with the changes taking place in their bodies. It is at this stage that adolescents try different things regarding communication, fashion, language, and other aspects that make them feel comfortable. It is worth noting that technology tends to be among the current issues affecting the interaction between parents and the children (Schultz & Schultz, 2016). The fact that the mother was trying hard to create a conversation with her daughter while the girl was busy using her phone indicates that there is a problem in regards to technology. Communication is an important process when it comes to building and maintaining a positive parent to child relationship. Therefore, any barrier makes it difficult for a parent to comprehend what his or her child is going through in addition to making a child find it difficult to express themselves. Most adolescents find it easier telling their peers about issues that are affecting them and possibly that is why they spend most of their time on the phone than engaging in actual conversation with their parents or guardians (Schultz & Schultz, 2016). 

Human behavior and social environment

The language used in all observations was English but differed regarding context. In the first observation, the language setting was between a lady and her son. The level of communication was low as the mother was busy on her phone and not paying keen attention to her child. Furthermore, she later engaged in a conversation with a friend such that she failed to notice her son’s desperate need for attention. The only time that she paid attention to him was when he accidentally fell whereby the mother scolded him instead of empathizing with him. Erikson perceives that when children who are three years old experience guilt, they tend to fear to show any initiation with the perspective that they will infuriate their parents. The guilt is what explains the child’s withdrawal from playing with his friends after being scolded. The relationship between the two implies that there is an issue hindering the mother from paying attention to her child; maybe work which makes be on her phone rather than paying attention to her child. In the second observation, the language context was a bit authoritative but full of compromise. The father understood the needs of his children while the children approached him in a disciplined manner. As stated earlier, such type of parenting is perceived to be effective as children acquire discipline and abide by the social norms. The language context in the third observation was a bit void whereby the mother was trying hard to seek to have a conversation with her daughter who appeared to focus on her phone while muttering single words fully; terms such as “yeah,” “okay” and “maybe.” The first and the third observations involved Caucasian families while the second family belonged to the African American community.  There was no much difference in language in regards to the ethnic differences but rather in the context in regards to the connection between children and their parents. 

In regards to the environment, the nature of the circumstances in the observations appeared to influence the type of interaction among the families. In the first observation, the mother was preoccupied with her phone and her friend who joined her later such that there were destructions that occupied the time she would have used in spending time with her son. Such barriers when they are experienced over time tend to affect children when it comes to associating with their parents.  In the second observation, it was quite difficult to tell the influence of the environment in regards to the relation between the parent and his children due to his authoritative nature and the rapport that existed between them. In the third observation, the aspect in the environment that interfered with the relation between the lady and her daughter was the daughter’s focus on her phone rather than what her mother was saying to her. Furthermore, one couldn’t tell whether the mother wanted to overreact and scold the daughter on the neglecting as we were in a train full of people. However, one could say that she was annoyed in the manner in which she stared at her daughter’s phone. What upset me the most was the first observation whereby I found it awkward for a mother to neglect her son despite taking him to the park to play. What surprised me the most was the actual proof of authoritative parenting whereby, despite the father, in the second observation, authoritative nature, he was able to relate well with his children and thus showing the effectiveness of authoritative parenthood. 

The entire observation was a naturalistic study and hence an interesting section of the learning process. From a personal viewpoint, relating what is learned in class to the actual environment adds more relevance to the associated learning objectives. The whole experience was informative in regards to the various relations that exist in our society. I was able to apply and relate the knowledge learned in class in the activity and hence a good strategy for practical experience. Therefore, linking the knowledge learned in class to practical situations was the most significant piece of knowledge I gained from the whole experience.


Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 91–97.

Chambers, D. (2015). A sociology of Family Life. New York: Cengage Learning. 

Hutchison, E.D. (2014).  Dimensions of Human Behavior:  The Changing Life Course, 5th edition.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications. Chapter 3 and 5.

Hutchinson, D. L. (2015). Continually Reminded of Teir Inferior Position: Social Dominance, Implicit Bias, Criminality, and Race. Journal of Law & Policy, 23-30.

Hutchinson, E.  (2014).  Dimensions of Human Behavior:  Person and Environment. 5Th Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Chapters 4,5,7,10.

Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. (2016). Theories of Personality. New York: Cengage Learning.

Philosophy of leadership in education

Managing People Performance: Motivation and Morale

Within any organization, motivation and confidence play a critical role in managing the performance of people. Confidence refers to the overall satisfaction that individuals derive from their job, superiors, work groups, or the organizations they work. It is affiliated with the feelings of individuals’ happiness, comfort, and satisfaction. Morale serves as a fusion of the attitudes of employees’ behaviors and opinion as well as view manifestation. When combined in the different work situations, they result to positive performance within the workplace. Regarding the case of professional learning communities, therefore, it is essential for the parties involved to ensure that they lay significant emphasis on the diverse forces that influence motivation among the different parties involved (MSG, 2017). With higher rates of motivation and morale, PLCs would manage to work efficiently toward boosting the performance of educators and implement effective strategies for realizing organizational learning goals.

Teams on the Context of School Leadership

Leadership in schools has emerged as a priority in the vein of global policy agendas. It plays a central role in boosting outcomes in schools through influencing the capacities and motivations of teachers as well as the existing school environment and climate. Effective leadership is vital for improving the efficient as well as equity in a learning environment. Whereas nations are focusing on adapting their educational systems to the needs of the modern society, anticipations for school leaders and schools are changing considerably. Most countries are shifting toward decentralization thereby learning schools to become more autonomous in their processes of making decisions while at the same time holding them accountable for the results realized (Pont, et al. 2017). Also, the need for boosting the overall performance of students while addressing the needs of diverse students is pressuring schools to utilize evidence-based practices of teaching.

As for the trends apparent in the learning institutions, the role of educational leadership in different OECD nations is increasingly being defined by requiring certain functions such as human and financial resource management as well as leadership for learning. Various concerns prevail across different countries since the past needs are not considered as any more appropriate. In many nations, principles have heavy workloads. Most of them are already reaching retirement while more challenges are emerging on how to replace them. Potential candidates are portraying reluctant to apply since they fear being overburdened by various roles, insufficient training and preparation, small rewards and support, and limited career prospects. In this sense, developments are being made to foster teamwork initiatives in learning schools. They target making school leadership a priority. These will ensure that different stakeholders will handle certain roles hence enhancing school leadership quality (Pont, et al. 2017). As such, for the professional learning communities to be active in today’s challenging educational environment, the parties involved will require embarking on team building efforts, which will contribute toward improved school leadership in the coming years.

Engaging in and With Research: Research Engaged School

Investigations carried out on research-engaged schools reveal that it is essential for schools to lay significant emphasis on research and inquiry. The two initiatives should be at the heart of schools, their systems, outlook, and activities. Research engagement assists leaders of schools to develop their institutions in such a way that they can make them ideal working places. In this sense, it would be vital to understanding what a research-engaged school is. A research-engaged school is one that lays notable emphasis on investigating major issues in learning and teaching. It utilizes inquiry to foster staff development. Also, it turns data as well as experience to knowledge. Furthermore, it uses evidence to guide its decision-making process. Lastly, it promotes learning communities (Sharp, et al. 2017). In this perspective, it is apparent that a research-engaged school would be crucial regarding delivering optimal learning needs for the learners as well as the communities involved.

Before becoming a research-engaged learning institution, the different stakeholders should understand the various reasons for doing so. For instance, a broad range of indicators should reveal that an institution is doing well. To allow it progress further, it should lay emphasis on how it does things (Sharp, et al. 2017). With research engagement, institutions gain prospects for reinvigorating their collective self-esteem and professional identify.

When a school becomes research engaged, it develops the capacity for contributing to the key business of the school while at the same time addressing educational policy development for effective leadership and performance. Institutions should do this by raising their standards via boosting teaching quality as well as support. They should also contribute to self-evaluation within institutions. In this sense, they would manage to give educational leaders something they can discuss concerning improving schools. Moreover, they should move forward to personalize learning via comprehending as well as addressing the learning needs of the pupils. Furthermore, they should address citizenship for each learner agendas by consulting young individuals concerning their education as well as involving them in the research process. Additionally, they should contribute toward the workforce of the school by allowing them to participate in the research efforts irrespective of their status or role (Sharp, et al. 2017). Lastly, they need to develop the capacity for solving their individual problems as they arise.

In emerging research-engaged schools, they should ensure they make commitments to utilizing evidence as well as research in the entire institution. These would have several implications for leaders. Firstly, they would allow them to commit sufficient resources to research, particularly research time. Secondly, they would manage to identify appropriate topics and focus their research on particular areas. Thirdly, they would manage to establish a research team that would provide them with the capacity for working in a collaborative manner. Fourthly, they would be able to offer support, such as research expertise and mentor. Fifthly, they would develop the capacity for developing a supportive learning culture in the entire school (Sharp, et al. 2017). Lastly, they would be able to make commitments for embedding research engagements to their schools. In this sense, emerging as a research-engaged school would contribute toward realizing professional learning communities that foster effective leadership in schools.

Managing Staff Workload and Wellbeing

Effective leadership in education institutions emanate from the capacity to manage the workload of public servants as well as their wellbeing. In this sense, it is crucial to understand that each human performance strategy, every manager, or organization seeks to realize high performance across the entire workforce. An adaptable and innovative workforce serves as a real organizational advocate and contributes toward effective relationship building both externally and internally. The ability to boost performance and improve the quality of relationships among colleagues is crucial in realizing the success of an organization. They all entail psychological wellbeing of workers inside the organization. Here, the two forces vital to the mental wellbeing of employees comprise of trust levels among employees and the outside environment they work. Elements of distrust result to dysfunctional relationships that slow down each interaction and affect the economic performance of an organization negatively (Jacobs, 2013). Therefore, to manage staff workload and wellbeing effectively, it is essential to emphasize on implementing the forces that foster trust and give practical implications to organizational leaders. Therefore, in the event of professional learning communities, they would realize increased benefits when schools devise effective ways of managing staff workload well as wellbeing.

Positive effects of stress

What is stress? Hans Seley famously known as the “father” of stress research was the first man to define stress. He expressed stress as the body’s nonspecific response to a demand placed on it. His explanation of stress majorly covers all forms of stress that is, mental, psychological or physical stress. Seley managed to give a breakdown of stress as both positive stress and negative stress, both of these forms of stress has both positive and negative impact on the functionality of an individual. It is imperative to understand that not all forms of stress have negative impacts on the health of an individual, many people have brought out clear ideologies explaining the positive effects of stress (Marchant, 2016). In this paper, we are going to have an outlook on the positive effects of stress, critique each one of them, and finally, we can assess if the arguments proposed are valid or not.

The positive aspects of stress are

Positive stress is one known as eustress and is one that gives one the drive to achieve more in life; it drives ambition in people to improve their quality of life, for instance, to ask for a pay raise or even take a trip for the holiday. Generations for centuries have always defined stress as synonymous to problems (Allen & Annells, 2009). Stress has for a long time known to impair our decision-making abilities. Anxiety and depression are key characteristics of stress. On the contrary, scientist have come up with ways in which one can change their mindset and see the positive effect of stress. The positive effects are inclusive of physical and mental health improvement. Every emotion that we have as human beings is there for a reason, stress is one of these emotions, what matters most is the perspective you look at it from. In a way, stress has its positive effects that is much ignored by many people as we dwell much more on the negatives that we do not realize the positive streams of a stressful situation (Evans, 2013).

How can stress actually be a good thing?


Psychologists and scientist researching stress have concluded that stress has an effect on motivating individuals towards achieving their set goals. Psychologists explain that one can view stress as a positive thing, one should look at it as a push towards the tackling of the stress factor. Regardless of one’s situation, he/she can be able to take that stressing factor as a motivation towards ridding themselves off that stressor. Looking at the stress factor as eustress one can get into a state of heightened mental awareness. Stress helps one to go about trying to rectify a problem or challenge facing them at that point in time (Gibbons, Dempster, & Moutray, 2008). Stress helps one to strategize, plan out their activities in a bid to create a solution that would permanently solve the impending danger lying ahead.

In a big way, the stressful situation leads us to focus on finding the solution that would solve the situation we are going through. I would gladly agree with the opinion that stress can be a positive thing. Taking into consideration where you have to raise a big amount of cash to save yourself from the auction of your house due to defaults in mortgage payments. This situation can be stressful mentally, physically and emotionally; one has to take this stress in a positive light (“Good Stress, Bad Stress”, 2016). Thinking of the situation as a mental challenge one can develop a narrow focus into solving the problem at hand. This helps the individual focus into developing the best and most efficient solution to the problem at hand. Taking a highlight of this station tells one of the positive effects of stress, it can make you open doors you never expected you would and unlock abilities you never thought you had. This can be an enlightening moment in someone’s life.

Cognitive Stimulant

Taking an academic situation, when a student needs to sit for an exam that will have future repercussions such as entry into university education. In many cases, it is important to understand that our mental capabilities are usually underestimated. When one is stressed about a certain mind blogging activity, they end up learning more about it. As the individual continues to research on the matter, his/her mental state keeps improving. Stressful situation enables one to learn more about themselves and acquire more knowledge. Stress helps the brain to focus on what is important, the priorities at the time (F. Mello, 2013).  Stress helps one focus on a narrow and single challenge. In the case of academics, a student learns new concepts, conceptualizes them and even finds ways of explaining the phenomenon or even manipulating the theories to suit certain principles. It is important to acknowledge that stress in a big way contributes to the booting of the cognitive functionalities of the individual.

In other cases, stress has been shown to improve memory and recall. While studying or revising for an exam a student’s ability to grasp and recall the study contents increases overtime. During stressful moments, there is a high secretion of cortisone from the pituitary glands of the brain (Hamza M. Abdulghani, 2011). This hormone is perfect for the development of the brain activity, but too much of cortisone has an adverse effect to the brain as it can cause damage to the hippocampus. It is then valid to say that stress not only contributes to negative effects such as highly blood pressure, depression, and migraines, but it has a positive effect to the cognitive functions of an individual’s brain. Maintaining a sober head would greatly help in reducing the negative effects of cortisone hence helping an individual reap more out of the situation they are going through at that point time.

Physical Enhancement

Adrenaline is one of the hormones released when one is under pressure. This brings up the flight or fight theory. The body charges up, and it is at accelerated state, the heart beat rate is usually increased while metabolism rates are usually above the roof. The body at any point in time is ready to issue fast and well-coordinated reflexes and reactions (Knowlton, 2014). At this point in time, the endurance level of the body is heightened which can help the individual to survive more than the body could take at a relaxed state. A bit of stress is important to give one a split second knee jack reaction, which in any case can be of use in defending yourself or even sprinting energetically in an athletic event. This kind of stress is always short term; it should never last for a long time which can lead it to a feeling of fatigue (Marchant, 2016). In the long run, endurance developed by the body can give a beating to the body by reducing its immunity to diseases.

It is important to factor this point in; stress can be a short-term or a long-term feeling. Depending on the situation the physical state of the body can be improved or dampened for that matter. It is important to consider that positive effects of stress are not as much as the negative effect of stress