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1. Introduction

 

This chapter will deals with the introduction part of the
proposal, which includes background of the study, a statement of the problem,
General and Specific objectives of the study, research questions, the scope of
the study, Significance, limitations of the study, description of the studying
area and organization of the study.

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1.1. Background of
the Study

 

Vital Event or Civil registration (VER or CR) is the continuous,
permanent, compulsory and universal recording of vital events (notably, live
births, marriage, divorce and deaths) in the predetermined times for each event
in at most three months, pertaining to the population as provided through
decree or regulation in accordance with the legal requirements of a country. It,
therefore, provides the ideal source from which to derive data for vital
statistics on a regular basis. UNESA (2001) para. 26 and the federal proclamation
of Vital Event and national identity card/ pro.  No 760/2012.

 

It provides basic demographic (Birth, Marriage, Divorce and Death)
and health information, bridging the information gap between censuses and other
economic and social indicators, It is the basis for the calculation of the
national and regional population averages, Provides identity confirmation for
individuals and access to citizen rights and responsibilities, including
entitlements (such as social security, health and pension benefits), individual
legal status, and fulfilling their rights and initiate citizens’ participation in the political life
of their country.

 

There are huge gaps in the availability of vital event and
statistics data, beginning with birth registration: approximately 230 million
children or 35 percent of all children under the age of five have not had
births registered (UNICEF 2013). Only one-third of the countries keep complete
civil registries that capture deaths and causes of death (WHO 2012). As Philip
W. Setel,.. (4), described in their scandal of invisibility; making
everyone count by counting everyone, on behalf of the Monitoring of Vital
Events (MoVE) writing group. Most people in Africa and Asia are born and die
without leaving a trace in any legal record or official statistics. Absence of
reliable data for births and deaths are at the root of this scandal of
invisibility, which renders most of the World’s poor as unseen,
uncountable, and hence uncounted and less benefited. This can imply that a huge
number of people including children, especially in the developing countries of
Africa and Asia, are born and dead with no knowledge, History and legal records
about their families and Grand families, and states with like society have no
specific data about their citizen’s demographic,
health, and other evidences.   

 

Countries with functioning VER/CRs have been found to have better
health outcomes than countries with weaker systems, irrespective of income and
other factors that are likely to affect the health status of the population
(Phillips et al. 2015). Unregistered children are also vulnerable to
trafficking and exploitation by human traffickers (Makinde 2015; Makinde et al.
2015). In addition, unregistered delinquent children can suffer significant
legal consequences by receiving heavier than warranted punishments because they
are unable to prove their real age (Cappa et al. 2014; Dow 1998). Thus, there
is reason to believe that improving birth registration will have several
cascading effects on population health and social outcomes in countries.
Measuring the performance of birth registration over time can help in
determining the rate of progress and the likelihood of meeting national and
global targets.

 

Although civil registration with high and representative coverage
should be the long-term goal, investment in complementary, interim sources of
statistics in the short term to medium term needed particularly for statistics
on mortality levels and causes of death. As noted by the UN Statistics
Division: “Although there is no substitute for the availability of
continuous information on vital events as obtained from registration of vital
events in civil registration allowance is made, as appropriate, for the use of
other sources of complementary or alternative data.”

 

If vital events have to be registered, a high social awareness has
to created, because the system of VER especially in our country is vulnerable
towards those who are the registries. There is no EVER system and no reach
through another means; but the people with these events to be registered have
to come to the office where the registers are waiting for. If there is no
clear, effective and efficient public awareness and understanding, the whole
system may perish.

 

Historically, the attempt to establish vital events registration
system in Ethiopia has started during the Menellik II (1889–1913). However,
provisions for the vital events registration were included in the Ethiopian
Civil Code enacted in 1960 (Federal Negarit Gazeta, 1960). It made compulsory to
register births, deaths and marriages. However, Article 3361 of the same 1960
Civil Code prohibited those articles pertaining to civil registrations coming
into force until an official order has to issue. Since the order to activate
these articles had ever came, for several decades, municipalities of big cities
and towns had been issuing certificates of births, deaths, marriages and
divorces without proper registration anchored in a national law. In 2000, the
Revised Family Law (Federal Negarit Gazeta, 2000) enacted and it had
incorporated provisions for the registration processes. It also requested the
Federal Government to issue registration law that would establish the Office of
Civil Status.

 

However Ethiopia had started the initiation of VER some five decades
before the other African countries who have introduced it during the times of
independence by 1960s and whose vital event registration remained incomplete in
most African countries, and very incomplete in rural areas Cantrelle &
Garenne 2015 with mixed and slowly proceeding results, Ethiopian vital event
registration remains almost creeping to date. As a sample of this evidence is
the report of the UNSD completeness of birth registration across African
countries now ranges from less than 10% (Somalia, Liberia, Ethiopia) to above
90% (Gabon, Congo, South Africa), and likewise, completeness of death
registration ranges from less than 10% (Niger, Benin, Sudan) to above 90%
(Sao-Tome & Principe, Cape Verde, Mauritius). United Nations Statistics Division
2015. These variations illustrate the magnitude of what has been achieved in
some countries, and what is missing in others like ours, Ethiopia.

 

The researcher is more attracted by the title of this paper
basically because the title is new and uncovered earlier by researchers and the
researcher wants to exert the efforts and energy in dealing with farther new
knowledge from the reports and training manuals and handouts from the UN,
UNICEF, WHO and others. It is also very important to deal with new topic but
very dynamically influence the socio-economic developments of nations
particularly the studying area. It has a sole importance in recording and evaluating
demographic events with planning the economy, health, and implementing peace
and order of the citizen of the state.

 

Since the publication and analysis of vital statistics is an
important element of population management, planning and administration, and is
necessary for monitoring trends in fertility and mortality, the main components
of population dynamics United Nations 2001, Everyone who passes through these
VER is entitled a unique national identity card at the eve of the birth
nationwide which eradicates false private and family information from suspected
criminals and enables too a intimidated legal corrective actions and
sustain the peaceful life of the society. In addition to this, the researcher
is intended to deal with new and undiscovered title basically after that it
will initiate farther researches triggers solutions for the improvement
of the VER process in the studying area.

 

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