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cooling & trapping

In science fiction
movies, LASER means hot! With uses ranging from LASER guns, LASER shooting out
of eyes to burn stuff, cut through things and many other hot         – and somewhat fictional- uses.
However it turned out that LASERs have a very unusual, but very remarkable

It might seem
counterintuitive, but LASERs are actually used to cool atoms down to
temperatures near absolute zero! The basic idea of LASER cooling is that when
an atom absorbs and re-emits a photon, its momentum changes, and for an
ensemble of atoms, their temperature is proportional to the variance in their
velocity, so if we slow down these atoms and lead them towards more homogeneous
velocities, they will cool down.
But why Lasers?



The acronym LASER stands for:
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
A LASER is a device that mainly consists of the following components:

A mirror with a reflectivity of %100 is installed at
one end of the device.

A gas, a liquid or a solid that serves us the gain
medium and creates identical photons.

Another mirror with a reflectivity of about %98

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