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BFGym has a few problems at the
workplace; employees are demotivated, there isn’t effective leadership and its
organisational culture doesn’t seem appropriate. In this essay, The Bureaucratic
structure would be explained as well as its principles, its advantages and
disadvantages and its impact on employee performance. The reason for the lack
of motivation in the employees at BFGym would be discussed alongside an
evaluation of the leadership styles implemented at the gym and recommended leadership
styles that are most suitable. Lastly, the dominant culture of the gym would be
explained as well as an evaluation for the recommended culture appropriate for
the gym.


Bureaucracy simply means an
organisational structure with authority, ruled by officials where there is a
formal set of rules. Weber emphasised on bureaucracy focuses on stability,
equity and predictability (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2013).  Bureaucracy has job specialisation which is
basically jobs broken down into routines and well formulated duties, in the gym
there are scheduled times for classes and the particular trainer assigned to
the role that they are experts in for instance Philip being a spinning instructor.

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This is beneficial because its efficient way of working but it lacks job
rotation which leads to repetitive task and bored employees which is evident in
Robin who finds the classes routines cyclic. There is an authority hierarchy where
the organisation has different levels and there is an active chain of command
for instance the trainers report to Kate because she is their superior who has
more power and control over decisions at the gym. Authority hierarchy clarifies
who is control and this good because the trainers know who to report when
issues arise but it allows errors to be hidden and employees are prevented from
contributing to management decisions (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2013), for instance
when their class schedule and session timings are made, they aren’t consulted
or considered, even when Jane made suggestions they were disregarded. An organisation
with a bureaucratic structure has a formal recruitment and selection process
where employees are hired based on their qualification and experience and this
is evident in BFGym because for instance Jane has a Physical education degree and
Nick is an experienced trainer. Having a formal selection is good because the
most suitable person for the job is chosen which assures the job is being done
efficiently but can restrain psychological growth of the trainers at the gym.

The impact of bureaucracy of employee
performance is that employees are lacking creativity because the gym doesn’t give
them the freedom to do more than they’ve been instructed to do; the restrictions
limit their creativity and freedom with their tasks. Furthermore, intense
bureaucracy would reduce performance because eventually the employees’ lack of
motivation would reflect on their performance; the efforts the put in would
reduce now they are thinking of quitting; hence lessening their commitment to
their job.


Motivation is the zeal and desire
that an individual has towards carrying out a task. The lack of motivation was
evident in Jane, Jo and Nick’s approach to work. Adams-equity theory provides
explanation for Nick’s lack of motivation. Equity theory can be defined as “a
process theory of motivation which argues that perception of unfairness leads
to tension, which motivates the individual to resolve that unfairness” (Huczynski
and Buchanan2013, p.296). Nick feels unfairly treated and this has resulted to
his dissatisfaction at work. Adams-equity theory suggests that when employees
feel they aren’t treated fairly compared with others, they would feel engage in
a form of resistance such as ‘quitting their jobs’ or even decrease their level
of effort (King and Lawly, 2013). Huczynski and Bunchanan (2013) suggest that
reward in the equity theory refers pay, fringe benefits and job satisfaction. In
Nick’s case of unfair treatment; he is being given the odd and inconvenient
shifts because he is relatively new and this has caused him to lose the
satisfaction he had when he first came to BFGym. Although Adams equity theory
explains why Nick is demotivated, it will be hard for the management at the gym
to control Nick’s perspective of fairness so the theory doesn’t really provide
substantial solution for Nick’s situation especially the fact that his
unfairness isn’t related to pay systems. Adams-equity theory is mostly
applicable to unfairness with payment system and financial rewards which is an
extrinsic factor but Nick’s inequity isn’t based on that; he feels unwelcomed
and mistreated by his co-workers and this would be difficult for management to interfere.

Therefore, Adams-equity does not necessarily fit all employees so this might
not be an adequate theory to explain Nick’s lack of motivation.

Vroom-expectancy theory explains
Jane and Jo’s lack of motivation. Expectancy theory analyses how employees perceive
a specific action and how it would assist them in achieving specific goals. MF=
V x I x E suggests that
employees will be motivated to perform effectively if they believe it would assist
them in achieving their goals. Jane and Jo both have expectations from the job
that haven’t been met and this has led to them feeling deteriorated. A study conducted
by Kovach in 1987 showed that ‘full appreciation of work done’ ranked the
second most important motivational factors (Linder, 1998) so if employees don’t
like their work because they know it won’t result in their expected intrinsic
reward then the effort they are motivated to put in would be low but if they
know doing that task would be instrumental in getting their intrinsic reward
then their motivational force would increase. In the same way Jane and Jo’s
motivational force will be low knowing that their job isn’t giving them their expected
intrinsic rewards.

Chiang and Jang (2008) suggest that
intrinsic variables are more related to employee motivation compared to
extrinsic variables. This reflects in Jane and Jo’s situation; their reasons
for lack of motivation aren’t linked towards financial gains or rewards but
rather their lack of motivation stems from their expectation to do something
that they are comfortable with and prefer. Vrooms-expectancy theory considers
all form of rewards; intrinsic and extrinsic but its application to the
workplace focuses more on financial rewards which questions how applicable it
can be to Jane and Jo, also, Parijat and Bagga (2014) suggest that the complexity of the theory makes
it difficult to predict motivation of employees that work in routinized jobs
such the work done at the gym.


Mullins (2016) states that is it
difficult to generalise leadership and defined it as a person in authority
being able to influence the conduct of other people. Using Lewin’s three
leadership styles, Kate implements a Laissez-faire leadership style in regard
to participation. She assigned the task to the group but doesn’t make an effort
to contribute or direct them; the group have full autonomy in doing the task.

This is good because it gives the group members the liberty to do as they
please and would be advantageous to the particular task they are assigned which
is finding solutions for their complaints. King and Lawley (2013) emphasize
that laissez-faire is inefficient as it doesn’t give quick results for the task
and leads to hostility and aggression in the group as seen with Robin and Jo. Phillip
exercises participative leadership because he is involved with the group in
trying to find potential solutions to the problems. This style of leadership is
practical because he is involving everyone including himself in the process
which is bound to have good results. Although participative leadership style
has it has it benefits, it makes decision making slow (King and Lawley, 2013).

In this situation, the group all have full schedules and little time to come up
with solutions so Philip being too involved would slow the progress of the
task. Participative style is democratic; involving the whole group in the task
would take time especially if some people such as Robin and Joe are not on the
same page or as involved as others such as Jane and Phillip. Even though Philip
was a tried his best to involve everyone in the process, Nick felt as though he
didn’t belong in the group and didn’t contribute so Philip wasn’t as effective
as he should have.

Unlike Kate, Phillip participates
in the group, he involves himself with the process of discussing potential
solution. Kate has restricted her involvement with the group; she only
instructs them but she doesn’t follow up on these instructions. Philip had
instructed the group and when he found that some people weren’t participating,
he urged them to while Kate never bothered to. Their leadership styles have one
similarity which is how slow it is in making decisions, it was taking Philip
time to complete the task because he was spending time convincing the group to

Given this information transformational
leadership from would be a more appropriate leadership style for Kate because
it inspires and intrinsically motivates the employees seems to be extremely
necessary for the gym because its employees have lack of motivation (King and
Lawley, 2013). Based on Burns (1979), Transformational leaders have individual
consideration and inspirational motivation which develops the needs of the followers
which in the gym is more autonomy and opportunities to apply their knowledge. Philip
could be more productive using a bit of autocratic leadership because the task
needs to be completed quickly due to the time frame of the task and autocratic
leadership ensures that decisions are made quickly even though it hinders
creativity. Therefore, implementing a bit of autocratic leadership to his
participative leadership style would be more suitable.


Organisational culture is simply
the way things are done in an organisation. The dominant culture at the gym is
role culture which is for businesses that have a bureaucratic structure.

There are some shortcomings of Role
culture in the gym. There is little opportunity for employees to contribute their
individual skills, for example Jane who has knowledge and skills from her
programme in Sports Pedagogy doesn’t have the chance to apply some of this knowledge
in her job. Furthermore, it is difficult for employees to make changes in their
workplace to the extent they give up on doing so, for example, Jane requested
to change some of the exercises in the classes but management declined the
request and that led Jane to want to quit her job at the gym and Philip who complained
about the break room becoming a workout room. Generally, the employees are
being told, not consulted, to do things they don’t prefer or deal with changes
that are inconvenient to them and they are giving up on making any changes,
seeing as previous efforts didn’t work before, and deciding to quit.

Brown (2007) suggests that strong
organisational culture increases employee motivation and a weak culture does
the opposite; this is to say that role culture is a weak culture for BFGym. A
more suitable culture for BFGym is Person culture and this is because it grants
the trainers at the gym the autonomy and individual freedom they need to feel
motivated and do their job to their best ability. King and Lawley (2013)
describes Handy’s person culture as having no formal hierarchy in the
organisation and this is how gyms usually operate; a group of people that do
the same thing and have similar expertise don’t need to be formally directed in
something they are experts in. Even though person culture can make decision
making in an organisation difficult and long seeing as it’s a consensus
management, it still has an advantage of high levels of commitment to decisions
because everyone was involved in making that decision.

Schien’s cultural iceberg suggests
that Managers can foster a different culture by changing the physical surrounding
which at the tip of the iceberg implies that it’s the least significant and
easiest to change. Following physical attribute is the espoused beliefs and
values in the organisation and this involves mission statements as a tool to
change the members perspective and outlook of the organisation by creating a
vision they can buy into. Mission statements are vital because they improve
public image as well as its employees commitment. Last level on Schien’s
cultural iceberg is the basic underlying assumptions in the organisation which
is the regular solution to a problem that is used unconsciously, this can be
very difficult to change but very important in the process. According to Brown
(2007) organisational socialisation helps members of the organization to adapt
to the new culture so this is something management can also consider.


In conclusion, BFGym would be a
better workplace if the gym has person culture where there is no formal
hierarchy. If the leaders are more transformational, participative and a bit
autocratic, they would be able to inspire employees and make faster decisions.

The gym has a bureaucratic structure that is impacting the employees’
performance by limiting their creativity. The trainers at BFGym lack motivation
for many reasons and the vroom-expectancy theory and Adams-equity gave were
used in explaining this.

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