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   Cyber Crime

 

Introduction: In this Modern era , cybercrime
has became a buzzword. Basically Cybercrime means illegal activity through
computer or related devices as a tool and the internet as a connection in order
to reach a variety of objectives .1

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In this paper,
we will try to discuss about cybercrime in detail including the
types, methods, technical reasons and adverse impact of cyber crimes on a network
as well as the behavior , psychology behind this crime & some effective solutions
.

Hackers were first started
cybercrime by trying to break into computer networks.1 Some of them have done
it only for the thrill of accessing high-level security networks, but others
for sought to gain many sensitive, classified and secret materials.1 Criminals
started to infect computer networking systems with viruses that leds to
breakdowns on  business as well as
personal computers.1 Nowadays,hackers and other criminals
in the virtual world are always trying to get the most sensitive and secret data
& information at least amount cost by viruses and also other types of
malicious soft-wares.2

Infact , the Internet is the
largest chain of computer network that are connected together which had a great
impact to connect us globally by allowing the transmission of information, messages,
and data 2.Besides these opportunities, Unfortunately this largest network
connectivity also allows lawless individuals to communicate with other lawless
individuals as well as with their victims.2

 

 

 

Some common Cybercrimes are:6

1.
Phishing Scams

2. Online Scams

3. Malware

4. Email Bombing

5. Virus Dissemination

6. Logic Bombs

7. Theft

8. Social Media Hack & Spamming

9. Electronic Money Laundering

10. Sales & Investment Fraud

11. Eavesdropping &
Surveillance

12. Software Piracy

13. Data Diddling

14. Salami Slicing Attack

15. Hacking(website ,social
account)

16. Cyber Stalking

17. Cyber Bullying

18. Identity Theft

19. Child Soliciting & Abuse

20. Ransomware

 

Technical Reasons :There are many technical reasons
behind these crimes. Some technical reasons behind cyber crimes are as follows:

 

•     
Lack
of reporting and standards3

•     
Tough
to identify3

•     
Limited
media coverage.3

•     
Least
marginal cost of online activity due to global 
reach.3

•     
A
very few rate of Official investigation and criminal prosecution3

•     
Capability
of computer to store data in comparatively small space.4

•     
Easy
to access4

•     
Complexities
in operating systems code4

•     
Lake
of evidence4

•     
Negligence4

•     
Loopholes
in systems5

•     
Confidential
information in online5

 

The threats of cybercrime to the network
security are not only for several organizations, but can be observed all over
the world in

different countries.

 

Relative risk of running computer networks
around the worlds are shown bellow:2

Name of the Country

            
Parcentages(%)

Chile

                     
61%

China

                     
45%

South Koria

                     
35%

US

                       
7%

Germany

                       
7%

Japan

                       
6%

UK

                       
6%

Sweden

                       
4%

Narway

                       
3%

 

Network security:2

Its very alarming for our country also…Now, its
urgent to prevent cyber crime.So we all should try to use proper network
security.

Some  common types of

Information Security Network
Protection( ISNP) packages

are as follows:

1.BlackIce

2.Conseal PC

3.Tiny

4.Protect X

5.Sygate Firewall

6.Win Route Pro

7.Zone Alarm

8.At Guard

9.Esafe Desktop

10.Hack tracer

10.Internet

Firewall 2000

 

 

Benefits of Network Securities:
Network securities are very essential to prevent cyber crime due to many
benefits  such as:

1.Reduces unauthorized lawless
individuals from accessing your

network.2

2.Gives transparent & legal
access to Internet-enabled users.2

3.Provides the surity that
sensitive data & informations is transferred safely by the public network.2

4.Provide your managers to search
and fix security problems.2

5.Gives a effective system of
warning alarms

attempt to access your network.2

 

Besides Network securities we can also
reduce cyber crimes by taking some proper steps such as:

1. Proper Investigation.7

2. Strong Legislation.7

3. Penalties.7

4. Increasing Awareness.7

5. Intelligent activities7

 

Behavior of criminals:

We have known  about cybercrime as well as its types,
impact, technical reasons by previous discussion.

 

But it is also very important to
know about the behavior or psychology of criminals behind cyber crime. Because
who involves in  this

behaviour have also become a part
of our  society.8 But there is a
difference between computer criminals and

non-computer criminals moral
choice

and exploitive or manipulative
behaviors.8 Self-reported computer criminals

were always higher on
manipulative behaviors but

on moral choice internal and
moral choice social,they were lower.8

 

A research had done by an
organization with 77 participants from a mid western university

Enrolled in the college of
technology .Among these participants 87%

were male and 13% were

female(Table-1) .8 The mean age
was taken 21years.Mainly ,participants

are the representative of the
largest population of interested individuals of  17–30 years age who make up the majority of
those individuals engaged in criminal behavior.8

 

Table-1:8

 

Participants

Percentage
 

Gender

 

Male

86.8%

Female

13.2%

Age

 

18–20

51.4
(35)

21–23

39.7

24-27

7.4

27-older

1.5

Ethnicity

 

white

85.3%

Asian
American

8.5%

African
American

1.5%

Indian

1.5%

Asian

1.5%

Asian(Indian)

1.5%

Major

 

Comp.
Tech

91.2%

Comp.
Graphics

1.5%

Comp.
Science

1.5%

Others

5.9%

 

 

 

It have been
also found by this research that they had engaged in these following activities
such as:8

 

1.trying to guess passwords.

2.trying to use other’s password
without authorization.

3.creating or using  a virus.

4 Obtaining a device for  free phone calls.

5. Trying to get someone’s credit card data without

authorization.

6.. Observing at others’ files without
authorization.

7.Modifying or changing others’ files without
authorization.

 

Actually, there are some psyclogical
reason behind these behavior such as

•     
Official
investigation and criminal prosecution is rare.5

•     
Catching
by law and enforcement agency is less effective and more expensive.3

•     
Passion
of youngsters5

•      For
the sake of recognition.

•      Desire
of making quick money5

•     
Create
new form of Crimes5

•     
Accessibility
of victims5

•     
Drawbacks
in judiciary system5

 

 

Website Hacking:

 Websites
became a major part of our life for various purposes. But its very alarming
that, websites may be hacked by hackers.Website
hacking has became a great threat for businesses
developing an online presence.9

Heckers are stealing secret data ,
information, taking control ,even shutting down any website. 10 The popularity of Web site hacking is mystifying.9 Actually, Hacking  of a Web site can affect the credibility and
reputation of the organization.9 But among many types of cyber crimes , Why
do hackers give effort to deface a Web site?9 There are some reasons behind
this.

Hackers can hack websites in many ways such as: 10

 

1.DDOs Attack(Distributed Denial of Service Attack): Make  unavailable
a website t the users.

2. Remote
code execution attacks: Make security weak either the server side or client
side 

3.Cross
site request forgery attacks:Hackers send to users a
forged HTTP request to collect their cookie information of users while they are
logged into a session or account.

4.Symlinking-An
insider attack: when a hacker positions the symlink Which is a special file
that “points to” a hard link on a mounted file system, the user or application
that access the endpoint thinks that they are accessing the correct file but
they’re really not.

5.DNS
Cache Poisoning: DNS Cache Poisoning attatched old cache data, hackers can
identify vulnerabilities in a domain name system thats allow to form traffic
from legit servers to a fake website .

6.ClickJacking
Attacks( UI
Redress Attack): to trace a user into clicking the top layer without them
knowing by using multiple opaque layers.

7.Brocken
Authentication and session management attacks:Passwords,
key management, session IDs, cookies are consists in authentication systems
that can allow a hacker to access the whole information from any website.

8.XSS
attack: also known as cross site scripting attacts : It can occur
when an application, file packet, url “get request” is sent to any web browser
window and bypassing the validation process, for example, user may see a page
asking for their credit card info or any other private informations. 

9.Injection Attacks: it happens when
there are flaws in the SQL Database, SQL libraries or the operating system by
itself.users might open the files
with hidden commands that’s make an opportunities to  hackers to get unauthorized access to
secret informations as well as data as like credit card number ,social security
numbersor other financial data.

 

A hacker can
exploit vulnerabilities by  applying  multiple and various  techniques to hack a Web

Site.So some
techniques  must be applied  to To prevent website hacking as well as keep
any website safe.

 

 

 

 

 

Some effective techniques for prevent website hacking are given bellow:

 

1. Keep software up to date
regularly.11

2. Toughen up  access control.9

3.Ensure OS
level protection9

4.Use  HTTP attack protection9

5. Use Web
server resources protection9

6. Use
standard Transact SQL.11

7. Give strong
passwords11 

8. Use HTTPS protocol to provide security over the
Internet.11

9Use Website
security tools such as Netsparker, OpenVAS, SecurityHeaders.io, Xenotix
XSS, Exploit Framework  etc.11

10. Tighten network security.12

11.
Hide admin pages.12

12.
Limit file uploads.12

13.
Use SSL.12

14.
Back-up frequently.12

15. Server
side validation11

 

 

 

Conclusion: We can not think our daily life
without compter as well as internet. The advantages of internet and computer
can not be described in one word. But they have also some demerits as like
cyber crimes.Its also became a part of our life. Criminals and victims both are
the part of our society. Now, the rate of various types of cyber crimes
increases rapidly. It must be reduced by keeping proper steps that’s are
already discussed in this paper for keeping safe our personal and private data and
information ,ensure the security of all types of websites and making our  society clean & peaceful.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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