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child goes through emotional development. Emotional development is studied
around the world today. Researchers are studying emotional development because
they want to understand how emotions work on young children. This topic is
important to teachers, students and parents because people need to understand
the aspects of how a child’s mind develops when it comes to emotions.

Understanding the aspects can help people cope better with children and help
people become more educated about emotional development in children. When it
comes to this subject, the studying of how emotional development works interest
me because I hope to become a psychologist one day.

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            Temperament is original emotional
style a person demonstrates in acting events. They look up to adults for
guidance and answers.

There three different stages of temperament. The first stage is called easy.

This stage demonstrates optimistic moods, able to adapt to change smoothly,
regular patterns in eating and sleeping on a daily basis. The second stage is
called difficult. This stage demonstrates unenthusiastic moods, irritation and
annoyed responses, not fast in adapting to change and terrible arrangements in
sleeping and eating. The last stage is called slow-to-warm. This stage is sluggish
adaption to new things and terrible arrangements in eating and sleeping. Children
search for people as a source of material to learn more about the world around
them. (Canfield 2014). Studies have created an experiment to collect
information about temperament in children. They wanted to figure out whether or
not a child’s temperament and other personality traits can affect their trust
skills and reliability tracking. Researchers first gather participants to
participate in their study. Fifty-six children are gathered to join the study.

The range age was about twenty-eight to thirty-eight months. (Canfield 2014).

There were no disorders in any of the children which made the experiment easier
to deal with. For the study, video clips were designed. Children went into a
test room which was very quiet. The room was very bland and plain to take away
any distractions it would cause to the children. The children watched a video
on a big screen and were asked some questions. There were two actors in the
video both wearing different colored shirts. They were identified by the color
shirt they were wearing. Each one of them identified an object and classified
it as either the right name or the wrong name. Children were asked to identify
the objects. Then the children were asked who was right in the video and who
was wrong. Doing this experiment gave information allowed researchers to critic
children’s responses to feedback. (Canfield 2014). There is a record called
Infant behavior record. This gives a good measurement of temperament according
to a child’s behavior in a laboratory. The record contains items which
evaluates an infant behavior. These include, motivational, sensory and
interpersonal domains. This record makes comparisons between children.

Observations of temperament give more ratings than other systems of testing
because different testers don’t make a real-life connection with children. Also,
it has had many experiences with an abundance of child temperaments and

            Attachment is a sensitive connection
that is normal to infants and children as they grow up. Infants are designed to
have their parents close by to content to their needs daily. Some children have
something called reactive attachment disorder. Children with reactive
attachment disorder do not understand how to respond kindness and throw
tantrums violently. This disorder is when a child fails to attach to their
parents. Attachment is very important in
development of a child because this determines how they will act later on in
life. Children with attachment disorder do not live a good life when they get
older. Usually children with this disorder have been neglected or abused which
made them develop this disorder. There are many parents who open up their homes
to children who have been abandoned or children that are orphans. Volunteering
to become a foster parent can be very frustrating and scary because they have
to cope with children who already have disorders. Several years ago, foster
parents have returned their kids back to where they came from because they were
not able to cope with their disgraceful behavior and attitudes.

Researchers have developed a set
amount of studies that mainly concentrates on children with this disorder.

Studies claim that children who were put into foster homes or raised in orphanages
prove to have RAD. Interviews were set up to collect valuable information and
discuss the issue. Individual interviews were set up at places around the city
and the participants were asked several open-ended questions. These questions
asked parents about their experiences they have with their children that has
RAD. Each interview was recorded and analyzed by a group of people. Taft stated
that “this potential silencing of RAD caretakers might complicate the diagnoses
of RAD children and the development of home and family based treatments.” Taft
(2015). During the interviews, each caregiver has explained their frustration
and tensions they have to deal with from children who have the disorder. They
have explained the different kinds of behaviors they encounter. These behaviors
are called inappropriate and unpredictable behaviors. The parent participants
gave examples of the behaviors their child has demonstrated to them. Some were urinating
around the house, stealing, being abusive or lying. A woman named Diane has a
child who has RAD. She explains to the interviewers how her child would wear a
pull-up that was dirty and place the dirty pull up in an air vent to cause the
house to have a terrible smell. According to Taft Diane says “the more the
family scramble to search for the source of the odor the more the child seemed
to enjoy it.” (Taft 2015). Threatening behaviors are behaviors that are mainly directed
at parents. These threatening behaviors include furious actions and outbreaks.

A lady in the article named Marcie has a son who attempts to jump out in front
of moving cars just to hurt himself. He figured that hurting himself will hurt
his mother because she loves him a lot. A man named George in the article talks
about how his son makes terrible threats and rude remarks towards him. The
child tried many attempts to hit his parents and said many hurtful things as
well. Another parent named Nicole explains how she adopted a child with
reactive attachment disorder. Her child would destroy her room by putting many
holes in the wall. Nicole was frightened to go in the room to try to calm her
down because she didn’t want her daughter to hurt her. These parents were told
to take many precautions while at home. Its best for them to lock their doors
when they aren’t in the room so that the child doesn’t interfere with anything
in the room. Children with RAD love to see bad things happen. They feed off of negativity.

If they see someone fall, get hurt or in trouble they find it very funny. They
want to attack and hurt other people. It could be a newborn, a toddler or teenager,
they will find a way to attack them. Children that have this disorder will even
fight people that aren’t their relatives. People such as teachers, students or
principals. They do not like being told what to do. If asked to do something
that they don’t want to do they will scream and throw a huge tantrum in front
of everybody. Conducting better research can figure out more consequences shaped
by children with reactive attachment disorder. Continuing research can magnify
the capabilities of people to work with parents that deal with these problems

Many people do not know the real
definition of depression and anxiety. Depression is a health disorder that
causes you to always feel like you’re in a despondent mood and makes you lose
interest in daily activities. Anxiety is a emotional health disorder that’s categorized
by feelings of distress or fright that can interfere with daily events. These
disorders participate in childhoods which can be a life time prevalence.

Anxiety and depression lowers a child’s routine in daily activities, decrease social
relations with family members and friends, creates low confidence and creates
poor academic performance in school. These disorders can affect a child long-term
and create more emotional problems. In this article that I read, it talks about
a program called “Friends for Life”. This program is used to support treatment
and prevention of anxiety and depression in young kids. This program assists
young children learn how to manage with their feelings of anxiety and depression.

The program teaches them how to loosen up and relax and teaches them how to
solve problems efficiently. In the study, they picked out two hundred and forty-eight
males that were aged ten. These males were screened to get checked for mild to
moderate anxiety and depression using something called a RCMA. (Moharreri 2017).

Males that passed anxiety and depression test were able to move onto the next
study. These children received the training program for eight one hour weekly
sessions by a psychiatrist. For session one it consists of introducing the
group participants. In session two, feelings were discussed and detecting body
signs of apprehension was taking place. Children were reminded from time to
time to relax so that they can complete relaxation activities. Session three
consisted of motivating oneself and throwing away unwanted and discouraging
thoughts. Session four consisted of looking for the positive things out of difficult
situations. For example, if a child feels overwhelmed with homework they can
simply look on the bright side and think that maybe if they do their homework
they will get a decent grade. It’s always good to look on the bright side of
difficult situations because every situation doesn’t have to be difficult, its
only if you make it that way. Session five consists of learning how to problem
solve when it comes to a problem. Session five also involves learning how to
socialize with people in the best way you can. Session six involves rewarding
yourself for participating in the program. Session seven involves practicing
the friend’s skills over and over again. Session 8 involves thinking positive
and staying relaxed and calmed for everything to avoid stress. It’s important
to remember how to use friends coping skills. (Moharreri 2017).

Oppositional defiant disorder is disobedient
and rebellious behavior towards adults. Many children may come across this
disorder because it is part of their emotional development. Researchers believe
that this disorder might come from terrible parenting. Children with this
disorder have problems associating with other people. They also are disobeying
their caregivers. They experience emotional lability and belligerence. Studies
found seventy-five participants that were children. The boys were ranged from
seven to twelve. (Miller 2015). These children got healing for their ODD as
long as an outcome study. Their treatment lasted for fourteen sessions. During
the study, an ADIS-IV assessment was used. This was used to determine the amount
children with a psychiatric disorder. This assessment has been found reliable
and useful for many reasons. According to Greene “In the present study, 65.4
percent of children also met criteria for ADHD and 58.7 percent of children
also met criteria for an anxiety disorder in addition to ODD. All interviews
were videotaped 20 percent of which were reviewed by a second clinician for
reliability. Using Cohen’s Kappa, agreement on primary, secondary and tertiary diagnoses
were .77, .85 and .86 respectively.” (Miller 2015). After using this help assessment,
the information gathered from it was used to create a post-treatment. Another part
to this assessment was called the emotion talk task. This task was created to
discuss positive and negative emotions of children with ODD. Scenarios were
created for the children to figure out which kind of emotion they felt the week
before. They had to speak about a time there felt joyful or had feelings of
irritation. If they felt more joyful than irritation then their ODD wasn’t as
bad as the next persons. If they felt more irritation than joyfulness, then
their ODD was more worse than the next person. During the emotion talk task
there was a second post-treatment aggression which is calculated by using
numbers from a survey and calculating them with a formula called R2.

The third regression studies parent-child synchrony. This measured the
pre-treatment and the global functioning. The purpose of this study was to
figure out ways to understand children with ODD. Researchers are still trying
to understand ways to have children with ODD respect and obey their caregivers.

In conclusion, every child has
their own emotional development while growing up. Researchers today are still
trying their best to find better ways to study about emotional development in
childhood so that they can gather more information to analyze it. I think it’s
very essential for researchers to continue to find better ways to study emotional
development so that people can know more about emotional development. This is
essential for teachers, parents and people who want to join the psychology
field because they can use this knowledge throughout life. Temperament, depression
and anxiety, reactive attachment disorder and oppositional defiant disorder all
fall into the category with emotional development because they all deal with
emotions in young children. These disorders are common in emotional development
and can happen to anyone that is a child. After reading upon these articles
about the emotional of child development and the disorders it can come with, I
have realized how serious these emotional disorders are. It’s important that
children with these disorders learn how to cope with others, handle situations
in a properly manner, respect elders and not become physically and mentally
abusive to others around them. 

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I'm Katherine!

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