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INTRODUCTION

Sprinting
is commonly known as the most popular effective high intensity exercise that
actually can increase the percentage of our heart rate easily. It also can burn
more calories in short period of time. We can do it in track or running path whereby
if the weather is bad we can use treadmill in the house or in the gym  (Michaels,
n.d.).
There are several sprint races including 100 meter, 200 meter and 400 meter. A
sprint cannot be held for long distance because during sprinting there are
glycogen which produces the lactic acid which is also makes us to feel tired
and also some burning of sensation in the muscles. (LIVESTRONG.COM,
n.d.)

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STAGES OF SPRINTING

Ø  DRIVE

A sprinter starts in the drive stage, when he
bursts from a dead still position into a sprint. The sprinter begins in a
crouched position, in the starting blocks, and pushes forward while leaning
ahead. To make efficient use of his energy, the sprinter should lean with his
whole body rather than bending at the hips. In this stage, the foot hits the
track below or slightly behind the hips. (azcentral.com, n.d.)

 

Ø  MAXIMUM VELOCITY

After the drive phase, the runner transitions
to the maximum velocity phase. At this point the runner becomes fully erect in
his posture, standing tall without his hips lowered. As the name suggests, the
runner achieves his maximum speed in this phase, maintaining it for as little
as 10 to 30 meters in the 100-meter dash, or as much as 200 meters in the
400-meter sprint. (azcentral.com, n.d.)

 

Ø  MAINTENANCE

The final phase of a sprint is the maintenance
phase. Sprinting is not thought of as an endurance sport, but even sprinters
cannot maintain top speed for the entire race. In the final stage, the sprinter
begins to slow down. In this stage, the goal is not to continue accelerating,
but to minimize deceleration. The runner should be careful in this stage not to
increase his stride length, which can have the inadvertent effect of slowing
him down further. (azcentral.com, n.d.)

 

In order to achieve good performance, sprinters
should be able to follow all this steps. A runner should always focus more on
gaining speed, maintain their speed. A sprinter also always train to accelerate
as quickly as possible then maintain the maximum velocity stage as long as
possible. (azcentral.com, n.d.)

 

FACTORS THAT AFFECTING SPEED

Ø  GENETICS

There are several factors that will affect a
sprinter’s speed including your own parents genetic which followed by yourself.
Muscle insertion points, muscle fibre type and lever length are also some factors
affecting speed. In this point we have to agree that some of the athlete has
advantage on their purely genetics. (Defranco, 2013)

 

Ø  MUSCLE
FIBRE TYPES

There are also some athletes which they are
born with predominantly more type II muscle fibres which are commonly found in
the sprinters. This may give them advantage but you cannot be as fast as people
with proper training programme. (Defranco, 2013)

 

Ø  TECHNIQUE

Natural aspect of an athlete’s make up is also
stride length. Even though it is difficult to improve on one area, it also can
be done. The frequency of stride is easier to change. It refers to the rate of
leg and arm movement as you sprint. By using biomechanics in doing research we
can actually improve our technique and safe energy. (Defranco,
2013)

 

Ø  POWER

Speed is actually depends on the power which is
generated how well the athlete can sustain the power. Many 100 meters sprinting
event winners are those who slow down the least it because power is one of the
essential element of speed. (Defranco, 2013)

 

Ø  FLEXIBILITY

Basically flexibility is the achievable range
of motion of a joint without causing any injury and the most looked component
of training programmes. A bigger and more powerful stride length usually wins
the race at the higher levels. A strong athlete who has great flexibility rate
able to cover more distance which can lead a race easily. (Defranco,
2013)

 

WAYS TO IMPROVE SPEED

 

Ø  START
WITH WALL DRIVES

In order to perform well during sprinting a
sprinter must be very focused and train on starting form. The effective way
that a sprinter call follow is by standing in front of a wall in two-point
stance and drive into the wall, gaining triple extension ankle plantar flexion
on your back leg, and drive your front knee forward and up to your hip height.
Remember your front knee need to bend 90 degrees in the top position. Once you
feel comfortable with the drills add on more drills make sure those drills are
explosive movement and powerful start. Use this as a warm up before sprinting
to learn proper mechanics. (www.stack.com, n.d.)

 

Ø  PERFORM
HEAVY SLED DRAGS

There is another way for train acceleration at
the start by heavy sled drags for 10 to 15 yards and the weight on the sled must
be close to your max squat to be considered as heavy. The point here is same
with wall drives which is to achieve triple extension on the back leg while
powerfully driving your front knee forward and then drive your front foot down
and back into the ground to propel yourself forward. (www.stack.com,
n.d.)

Ø  DEVELOP
ISOMETRIC AND ECCENTRIC HAMSTRING STRENGTH

By performing eccentric and isometric training
and you can train your hamstring well to improve in speed during running. Hamstring
also works to keep the knee joint stable as force transfers to the hip and also
helps the glutes hip extension and slow down knee extension. Training which is preferable
for isometric strength is Bent-Knee Hip Thrusts on a ball or bench for three
sets of 10 to 15 reps. Make sure that your hamstring contracts during this
exercise. Do not rest your butt on the ground and just tap and go. You can add
weight across your hip if its necessary. You can do glute/ham raises for
eccentric strength by lower yourself to the ground as slowly as possible. (www.stack.com,
n.d.)

 

Ø  IMPROVE
STRIDE LENGTH

In order to run fast in race a better way is to
take longer strides and make as powerful as possible. Focus on getting full
triple extension on your back leg. Focus on driving your feet back at ground
strike instead of letting your feet smack the ground. For a explosive and
powerful extension do three to five sets of standing triple jump at the
beginning of your exercise. (www.stack.com, n.d.)

 

RESULTS

PART
1

Speed = Distance/ Time = 50m/7.67 = 6.52m/s

PART
2

Distance
(Meter)

Time
(Second)

Difference
in Time (Second)

Velocity
(m/s)

Difference
in Velocity (m/s)

Acceleration

10

1.58

1.58

6.33

6.33

4.01

20

2.90

1.32

7.58

1.25

0.94

30

4.04

1.14

8.77

1.20

1.05

40

5.03

0.99

10.10

1.33

1.34

50

6.42

1.39

7.19

-2.91

-2.09

60

7.67

1.25

8.00

0.81

0.64

70

8.80

1.13

8.85

0.85

0.75

80

9.88

1.08

9.26

0.41

0.38

90

11.52

1.64

6.10

-3.16

-1.93

100

12.65

1.13

8.85

2.75

2.44

Individual
Result For Suman Gobinathan

                                                 

DESCRIPTION

In conclusion I can
view that my velocity is not same as all the time as it increasing and
decreasing on the distance that I have ran. The maximum velocity that I achieved
is 10.10 during 40m distance. The minimum velocity that I gained is 90m which
is 6.10 of the sprint.

 

Distance
(Meter)

Difference
in Time (Second)

Velocity
(m/s)

Difference
in Velocity (m/s)

Acceleration

10

1.86

5.38

5.38

2.89

20

1.03

9.71

4.33

4.21

30

0.92

10.87

1.16

1.26

40

0.88

11.36

0.49

0.56

50

0.86

11.63

0.26

0.31

60

0.84

11.90

0.28

0.33

70

0.85

11.76

-0.14

-0.16

80

0.85

11.76

0.00

0.00

90

0.85

11.76

0.00

0.00

100

0.86

11.63

-0.14

-0.16

Maurice
Green Result during 1999 World Championships Seville, Spain

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

Compare
to my velocity rate Maurice Green has more constant and increasing value in the
100m sprint event and mine was not constant and not balance as well. Maurice
Green has the greater amount of velocity which is 11.90 and mine was only
10.10. The lower rate of velocity of Maurice Green is 5.38 while mine is 6.10
which shows a lot of difference. Acceleration wise Maurice Green’s graph
showing that it increasing at the beginning and slow down constantly throughout
the 100m sprint event. My graph shows that it increases slightly at the first
and then it drops instantly during the sprint which shows my weakness as well. The
higher rate of acceleration of Maurice Green is 4.21 and mine was 4.01 while
the lowest acceleration of him is – 0.16 and mine is – 1.93.

 

COMPARISON OF MY RESULT
AND THE STAGES OF SPRINTING

 

Ø  DRIVE

The
driving phase of mine is at the starting part of the run. I begin in a crouch
posture while body is leaning forward. In this part I achieved the highest
velocity at 6.33m/s which is greater than Maurice Green’s beginning velocity.

 

Ø  MAXIMUM VELOCITY

The
maximum velocity that I had is 10.10m/s in the 40m of the run compare to
Maurice Green’s one which is 11.90 at his 60m run which makes him to maintain
it constant and he has the advantage to finish the race in a short time without
taking more time. The key point of winning a sprinting match is by achieving
maximum velocity during the halfway of the match which is used by Maurice Green
to excel in a short period of a time.

 

Ø  MAINTENANCE

In
the graph itself it shows my maintenance of the speed getting worst as it
decreasing a lot as you can see in the velocity and acceleration graph. In order
to finish a race in a shortest period of time I need to train more on speed
training so that I can improve my speed and maintain the speed as well.

 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
FROM PRACTICAL

 

                              
I.           
Graph shown is page 5, 6, and 7 as
well.

                           
II.           
At the 90m distance I had the lowest
velocity speed of 6.10m/s. It is because I am focusing more on applying a lot of
force onto the ground to achieve more acceleration as I am reaching the end of
the race.

                        
III.           
At the 40m I have reached the
maximum rate of velocity because that is where I feel I am ready to explode as
fast as I can where the speed is 10.10m/s. I had a proper technique of
sprinting which it helps to exert more force during sprinting.

                        
IV.           
At 10m distance the maximum acceleration
occur which is 4.01m/s. When I had external force during beginning of the race
it helps me to take off easily on the starting line. I try my level best to
lean my body forward as sprint as fast and power as I can so that I can reach
maximum acceleration.

                           
V.           
Acceleration is a measurement of
the change in velocity over the time. Zero acceleration shows there is no
change in velocity over time. Maurice Green has zero acceleration in his 100m
sprinting but I do not have it.

Negative acceleration
is where we slow down until it shows negative value in the table. In this race I
also had several negative ones but I have to train more hard to overcome it and
gain more speed a s well.

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