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Proteases catalyze hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins.
It is one of the most widely used industrial enzymes. It is extracted from wide
diversity of sources such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. Microbial
sources are preferred for the production of proteases due to technical and
economic advantages. Microbial proteases has a lot of applications in different
industries like detergent, leather, silver recovery, dairy, baking, beverages
and pharmaceutical industries. These hydrolytic enzymes are efficiently
involved in food industry for enhancing nutritional value, digestibility,
flavour and reducing allergenic compounds. It is also used in management of
domestic and industrial wastes. They are also involved in synthesis and
structural explanation of proteins. The present communication is an overview of
the proteases produced from bacterial and fungal sources and their role in
various industrial applications.

Introduction:

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Proteases,
hydrolytic enzymes, are the commercially applicable enzymes. These enzymes
occur in a wide diversity of plants, animals, and microorganisms. They have
vital role in both physiological processes, e.g. zymogen activation by
proteolysis, blood coagulation, transport of secretory protein across
membranes, tumor growth, protein catabolism, inflammation, cell growth, tissue
arrangement and morphogenesis in development. Microbial origin proteases are
preferred over other proteases for industrial application due to the technical
as well as economic advantages. Microbial proteases have been studied
extensively due to easy cultivation, high productivity and ease with genetic
manipulation to improve the catalytic properties. In general, proteases
production from microorganisms is constitutive or partially inducible in nature.
Proteases of microbial sources have find commercial applications in detergents
industry, tannery, leather industry, peptide synthesis, dairy processing,
brewing, tenderization of meat, baking and pharmaceutical industry. Proteases,
particularly alkaline proteases, hold a great potential for application in the
detergent and leather industries due to the increasing trend to develop
environmentally friendly technologies. There is a great deal of interest in
using proteolytic enzymes as targets for developing therapeutic agents. The
current estimated value of the worldwide sales of industrial enzymes is $4.2
billion. Proteases represent one of the three largest groups of industrial
enzymes and their global market is projected to reach approximately $ 2.21 billion
in terms of value by 2021 at a CAGR of 6% from 2016 to 2021. Proteases from
microbial origin are accounted for the largest share in the market in terms of
value, followed by the animal source 10. Sources Proteases have physiological
role in all living organisms and therefore, they are present in a wide range of
sources such as animals, plants and microorganisms 3. Plant Proteases Plant
proteases are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. Most extensively
explored plant proteases are bromelain, ficin and papin extracted from Ananas
comosus, Ficus carica and Carica papaya, respectively. These proteases are
utilized for different application such as brewing, tenderization of meat, milk
coagulation, digestion, viral and cancer treatment. Keratinases is another
important plant protease it hydrolyze hair and wool to produce essential amino
acids and to prevent clogging of waste water system. In recent time plant
proteases have gained increasing attention, though the proteases production
from plants is a time consuming process. In addition to it, other factors such
as land area for cultivation and climatic conditions also regulate production
of proteases by plants. Animal Proteases The most widely used animals derived
proteases are pancreatic trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin and rennin. 

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