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Republic of Kazakhstan                           i. The Question of Disempowering Boko Haram in West Africa         ii. Measures to prevent civilian casualties in Afghanistan        iii. Implementing gun control measures in the United StatesOverall Facts:Sources: “The World Factbook: KAZAKHSTAN.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 10 Jan. 2018, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kz.html “Kazakhstan Profile – Timeline.” BBC News, BBC, 13 Aug. 2017, www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15483497.  Government Of The Republic Of Kazakhstan, http://en.government.kz/en/ Foreign Relations of Kazakhstan, https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Kazakhstan.html Sinor, Denis, et al. “Kazakhstan.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 19 Sept. 2017, www.britannica.com/place/Kazakhstan   “What Is the Civil Law?” What Is the Civil Law? | LSU Law – Civil Law Online, www.law.lsu.edu/clo/civil-law-online/what-is-the-civil-law/. Background/History:Population: 18,556,698Death Rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 population-Kazakhstan’s economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states due to the fact that the country is abundant in vast natural resources.- Current issues according to the CIA Factbook include: “developing a cohesive national identity, expanding the development of the country’s vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets, diversifying the economy, enhancing Kazakhstan’s economic competitiveness, and strengthening relations with neighboring states and foreign powers.” Timeline:1st-8th centuries – Turkic-speaking and Mongol tribes invaded into their new home which is now known as the Republic of Kazakhstan8th century – Arab invaders introduce Islam.1219-24 – Genghis Khan along with Mongol tribes invade Kazakhstan and Central Asia.Late 15th century – Russian domination1822-68 – Undeterred by multiple uprisings, Tsarists Russian still has control over the Kazakh tribes and is able to kick the Kazakhs out.1868-1916 – Thousands of Russians and Ukrainians move into Kazakhstan. Multiple enterprises start to emerge.1916 – The citizens of Kazakhstan organized an anti Russia uprising. Consequently this resulted 150,000 people wounded and 300,000 fleeing abroad.1917 – Civil war breaks out following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia.Soviet rule1920 – Kazakhstan becomes a member of the USSR. To differentiate Kazakhstan from the Cossacks Kazakhstan was named the Kyrgyz Autonomous Province.Late 1920s-1930s – More than 1 million people died from starvation due to the fact that the Russians were trying to settle nomadic Kazakhs and collectivise agriculture.1936 – Kazakhstan becomes a full union republic of the USSR.1940s – Hundred of Koreans, Crimean Tatars, Germans and others are forced to move to Kazakhstan.1949 – At the Semipalatinsk nuclear test ground, the first nuclear test explosion is carried out.1954-62 – The amount of Ethnic Kazakhs in the republic drops by 30% when 2 million people (mainly Russians) move during the campaign to further develop virgin lands launched by Soviet Leader, Nikita Khrushchev.Anti-Soviet stirrings1986 – 3,000 people take part in a protest when the Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachec decides to replace Dinmukhamed Kunayev (an ethnic Kazakh) with Gennadiy Kolbin as Head of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.1989 – The Kazakhs take back control when Nursultan Nazarbayev, an ethnic Kazakh, becomes head of the CPK. The parliament decree a new law on language: Kazakh is the state language and Russian a language of interethnic communication.1990 – Nursultan Nazarbayev becomes the first Kazakh president on October 25th. He declares state sovereignty.1991 August – President Nazarbayev condemns the attempted anti-Gorbachev coup in Moscow; the CPK withdraws from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; Nazarbayev signs a decree on closing the Semipalatinsk nuclear test ground.Independence1991 President Nursultan Nazarbayev wins presidential elections. Kazakhstan declares its independence from the USSR and joins the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)1992 – Kazakhstan joins the UN and OSCE (Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe).1995 – Kazakhstan and Russia have a military cooperation pact; a nuclear free status is obtained. President Nursultan term is extended until 2000.1997 – Major oil agreements secured with China. 1998 – Kazakhstan’s new capital is named Astana. The president’s term is extended from 5 to 7 years.1999 – President Nursultan is re elected, his main opponent being the former PM Akezhan Kazhegeldin. 2000 – Kazakhstan improves and tightens its security on all borders following assault by Islam militants in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.2001 June – Kazakhstan joins China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in launching the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) which aims to fighting ethnic and religious militancy and to promote trade.2001 November – President Nursultan purges government of officials accused of joining the Democratic Choice reform movement.2001 December – The President discusses commitment with George W. Bush.2002 January – President Nursultan appoints Imangali Tasmagambetov as prime minister to replace Kasymzhomart Tokayev, who quit suddenly.2002 July – Ex-energy minister mukhtar Ablyazov is jailed due to accusation for alleged abuse of office.2002 August – Opposition figure Galymzhan Zhakiyanov, co-founder of Democratic Choice movement and critic of President Nazarbayev, is jailed for alleged abuse of office as regional governor.2003 January – Sergey Duvanov was found guilty of raping a minor and was immediately jailed. Some rights group say that the trial was corrupted and was an alleged attempt to silence the media’s critique of president Nursultan.2003 May – Jailed opposition leader Mukhtar Ablyazov pardoned and released.2003 December – President Nazarbayev announces moratorium on death penaltyOil to China2004 May – Kazakhstan signs a deal with China on construction of an oil pipeline to the Chinese Border.2005 January – The Democratic Choice is accused of “breaching state security”. This resulted into the court’s dissolution of the Democratic Choice.2005 March – Opposition groups join together to form For A Just Kazakhstan movement led by Zharmakhan Tuyakbay.2005 November – Zamanbek Nurkadilov was found shot dead in his home. Zamanbek was a big opponent to the president and constantly critiqued him.2004 August – Galymzhan is released from prison and sent into internal exile.2005 December – Nursultan Nazarbayev returned for further term as president with more than 90% of vote. Western observers say poll flawed.2006 January – Opposition leader Galymzhan Zhakiyanov returns home to Almaty from internal exile after being released on parole.2006 February – Altynbek Sarsenbaiuly and his bodyguard was found shot dead outside Almaty.2007 January – Prime Minister Daniyal Akhmetov resigns, giving no reason for his move. He is replaced by former deputy premier Karim Masimov.2007 May – Parliament votes President Nursultan can stay for an unlimited amount of terms.2007 August – Trial of 30 alleged Islamists accused of belonging to the banned group Hizb ut-Tahrir, which advocates the setting up of an Islamic state across Central Asia.2009 June – Chat rooms,blogs and forums count as mass media. This means a blogger could potentially break the law by expressing a view. 2009 October – France and Kazakhstan signed an energy and business deal worth 6 billion dollars. This has resulted into Kazakhstan allowing French Military supplies to pass through Kazakhstan on their way to Afghanistan.2009 December – Chinese President Hu Jintao and President Nazarbayev unveil the Kazakh section of a natural gas pipeline joining Central Asia to China.2010 January – Kazakhstan becomes the first former Soviet state to chair the OSCE.More powers for president2010 May – The Parliament has  approved a bill stating the president Nursultan is immune to prosecution.2010 July – A customs union between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan comes into force after Belarus ratifies a key customs code.2012 October – Vladimir Kozlov is jailed after found guilty of “attempting to overthrow the government”. He had a plot with exiled politician Mukhtar Ablyazov.  2013 June – David Cameron becomes the first serving British Prime Minister to pay an official visit to Kazakhstan. The UK is the third largest investor in the oil-rich central Asian nation.2014 January – Mukhtar Ablyazov is accused of stealing billions of dollars from the Kazakh BTA bank which operates in Russia and Ukraine.2014 May – Russia, Kazahkstan and Belarus sign an agreement creating an economic union. The Eurasian Economic Union aims to create a shared market and integrate economic policy across the three former Soviet countries.2015 January – Eurasian Economic Union between Russia, Kazahkstan and Belarus comes into force.2015 February – Rakhat Aliyev, Kazakhstan’s former ambassador to Austria is found dead in a prison cell in Vienna. 2015 April – President Nazarbayev is re-elected with 97.7 per cent of votes cast. 2015 September – President Nazarbayev appoints his daughter, Dariga, as deputy prime minister in a move linked to possible succession planning.2016 March – The government bans any devices in government buildings due to the fact that confidential information was leaked through the app WhatsApp.2016 May – Police arrest dozens of anti-government protesters after they hold rallies against controversial land reforms.2016 August – Vladimir Kozlov is released four years into a seven and half prison sentence on charges of attempting to overthrow the government., Geography:- Central Asia, Northwest of Asia. – Total area of Kazakhstan is 2,724,900 sq kmLand: 2,699,700 sq km    Water: 25,200 sq km- Kazakhstan’s neighbouring countries include China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Kazakhstan is abundant in resources such as petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, coal,  chrome ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold and uranium.Government:Full Name: Republic of KazakhstanGovernment Type: Presidential RepublicLegal System: Civil Law System Influenced by Roman Germanic Law and by the Theory and Practice of the Russian Federation.Civil Law – The civil law is a comprehensive system of rules and principals arranged in codes and are easily accessible to citizens and jurists. Every country has its own sets of civil laws (what they can do and can’t do). Every citizen must abide by these laws and follow them.Presidential Republic – The head of the administration is going to be the president. The president has great power, he is the head of the government and is also head of state. The Parliament has no right to dismiss the government and the president has no right to dismiss the Parliament. The Parliament is a group of people who are chosen by citizen of a country to represent them.Foreign Relations/Diplomatic Relations:5 of the most prominent allies:Armenia: Both countries have embassies in both places. Both countries are full members of the OSCE and the OSCT. The Armenian president Robert Kocharyan made an official visit to Kazakhstan. The Kazakh president Nursultan also made an official visit to Armenia.Israel: Kazakhstan has good relations with Israel. The president of Kazakhstan made a visit to Israel from 1995 and 2000. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert remarked, “Kazakhstan can show a beautiful face of Islam … Contemporary, ever-developing Kazakhstan is a perfect example of both economic development and interethnic accord that should be followed by more Muslim states.” Bilateral trade resulted to 724 million dollars in 2005. In 2008, Kazakhstan and Israel joint forces and made huge military improvements such as the Self-Propelled Guns and Multiple Launch Rocket System.France: President Nursultan has visited France 10 times since its independence. The relations between the 2 countries have grown stronger from Kazakhstan hosting the 2017 World Expo. They have been working together on 11 technology projects focusing on aerospace.China:Kazakhstan and China have become friends through the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. In 2005 the China National Petroleum Corporation bought PetroKazakhstan for 4.18 billion dollars. The Chinese built a pipeline (costing roughly 700 million dollars) to take oil to the border. On April, 1994 the 2 countries signed their first boundary agreement and a second agreement on July, 1998.Russia:Russia and Kazakhstan has strong ties to each other. This relationship has wavered since the fall of the Soviet Union. They are major supporters of the CSTO and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Kazakhstan -Russian relations have been worn at times as a consequence of an economic cooperation with the US as well as conversation over Russia’s consistent use of the Baikonur Cosmodrome. The 2 countries are good with each others since Kazakhstan sells oil and gas to Russia and in return Russia has invested a lot of money into Kazakhstan’s Economy.Economy:Kazakhstan possesses considerable fossil fuel reserves and other minerals and metals such a uranium, copper and zinc. The country also has abundant livestock and grain. Kazakhstan recognizes that its economy endures  an over reliance on oil and has made some attempts to diversify its economy by focusing on sectors such as transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. Kazakhstan is landlocked and heavily dependent on Russia to export its oil to Europe. Kazakhstan has also established an oil pipeline to China. By joining the Customs Union along with Russia and Belarus, this shows Kazakhstan’s effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade.

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