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Assignment

Pak study

Topic

Indus water treaty

Submitted TO

Sir Qasim Cheema

                       

 

 

Indus Water
Treaty

Introduction:

It
is a water distribution between India
and Pakistan.
This is organized by World Bank. This treaty signed in Karachi on 19 September
1960 by jwahar lal Nehru who was
prime minister of India
and Ayub khan who was thaw president
of Pakistan.

Because, in April India stopped to water supply to Pakistan from any canal
of India to Pakistan. Then, Pakistan forced to India
and India
finally agreed to interim agreement
on 4 may 1948.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

But this agreement was not permanent
solution. Therefore, Pakistan
approached to World Bank in 1952 and in Ayub Khan’s Government this agreement
was signed between India and
Pakistan in September
1960.This agreement called Indus
Water Treaty.

History and Background:

Water
is the great blessing of Allah on the earth. The main stream of the Indus along
with other rivers such as Jhelum and Chenab that flows into Pakistan come from the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The waters of the Indus basin start from
Tibet and
the Himalayan Mountains of Jammu and Kashmir. They flow from the hills of Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and Sindh .In which they emerging in Pakistan and flow out into the Arabian Sea south
of Karachi. There
was only a narrow layer of flood land along these rivers.

 

 

 

 And other hand, Ravi, Beas and satluj are
veins of India.
Pakistan’s
agricultural totally depends on the flow of important water supply. But India has
several other rivers and water sources to support its agriculture sectors.

Pakistan has agriculture land.80% agriculture sectors
depend on the Indus basin. Pakistan has one of the largest
canal systems. After independence, problem between two countries arose over

The
distribution of water. Rivers flow into Pakistan
territory from across India.
In 1947, when Punjab divided between two countries.
And Water Rivers divided in both sides. But water flow from India to Pakistan,
India stopped water in
1948.indus water treaty is the most successful treaty in the world which
survived three wars between India
and Pakistan
for water distribution. After that world band resolved the issues with a
treaty. This treaty divided the rivers and canals between two countries.

 

 

Distribution:

Pakistan obtains three Western rivers:

Indus
Jehlam
Chenab

India obtains three Eastern rivers:

Ravi
Beas
Sutluj

 

 

In India
have 20% of eastern rivers and Pakistan
has 80% part of western rivers.

 

 

This treaty guaranteed for 10 year period to
supply water India to Pakistan until Pakistan able to build the canal
system to utilization water.

Dams in Pakistan:

In this time period Pakistan take loan from World Bank
and constructed Three Dams.

1.    Warsak

2.    Mangla

3.    Tarbela

 

Link canals
in Pakistan:

And
eight link canals also build:

Sidhnai on Ravi and
Mangla
Sidhnai –
Mailsi. Mailsi Siphon on Sutlej Chashma
Mailsi – Bahawalpur.
Qadirabad on Chenab
Tarbela.
Rasul- Qadirabad
Rasul on Jhelum. Qadirabad – Balloki Chashma on Indus
L.C.C Feeder
– Marala on Chenab
Balloki-Sulemanki-
II
Chashma-
Jhelum. Taunsa- Panjnad

Bridges in Pakistan:

Five bridges and a gated siphon were also
constructed under this treaty.

Attock Bridge
Lansdowne Bridge
Ayub Bridge
Malir River
Bridge
Jhelum Bridge
Jinnah Bridge

 

               

 

 

 

Dams in India:

In other hand India constructed 62 dams on these rivers but Pakistan
build only 2 dams. After Mangla and Tarbela dam government didn’t take interest
to build other dams.

According to
water recording Pakistan
have averagely 145 million Accor water in a year, and 5 to 10 million Accor
came from the lakes. India have 750 million Accor water average, despite that
which water use in lakes it is separate for these average water.

Main issues:

The main reason
of water issues between Pakistan
and India
is that:

India builds dams on Pakistan
Rivers illegally such as

·        
Kishan
Ganga dam

·        
Baglihar
dam

·        
Dams on
Indus Rivers

·        
Salal
dam

Kishan Ganga dam is hydro electric plant which is on the
Jehlam river basin and located in Jammu
and Kashmir.

Baglihar dam project on the river Chenab
which began to constructed in 1999.

Wullar barrage a storage of Wullar Lake
in 1998

Project halted in 1987
due to Pakistan
objections

Salal dam on river Chenab

 

Involvement of world bank:

World Bank has the
capacity to help countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet
development challenges. During the water war between Pakistan
and India
world band signed a treaty between both countries. And resolves this issue for
10 years but India
start build dams on Pakistan Rivers and don’t stay on this treaty. Therefore,
these countries have not good relation due to water wars. After that treaty
World Bank gives loan both countries to build own dams and bridge for water
storage.

In start World Bank
was aggressive to get involvement in this treaty. World Bank refuses to gives
loan both countries because they were economy alive. They offered a unpartisan
party and offered an option taking into account both countries needs.

 

Conditions:

World Bank takes three conditions to approve
these loans:

Indus basin had enough water for both
countries.
The
basin was treated as a single unit implying all the rivers were to b
discussed.
Past
complaints put a side and technical rather than a political focus
retained.

Loans to Pakistan:

Currency

Original Grant (1960)

Supplementary Grant (1964)

Original Loan to Pakistan
(1960)

Supplementary Loan to Pakistan
(1964)

GB£

62,060,000

 

 

Ten
yearly installments 

6,965,000

4,669,643

 

 

Can$

22,100,000

16,810,794

 

 

DM

126,000,000

80,400,000

 

 

NZ£

1,000,000

503,434

 

 

GB£

20,860,000

13,978,571

 

 

US$

177,000,000

118,590,000

70,000,000

51,220,000

US$

 

 

90,000,000
(in various currencies) inc interest

58,540,000
(in various currencies)

These loans and grants World Bank gives to Pakistan.

Conclusion:

The provision of this treaty formed time to
time modified by a duly approvals treaty conclude for that purpose between two
governments. The provisions of treaty modified under the provisions.

Pakistan has exclusive use of western rivers. The
agreement set up to commissions   to settlement
any disputes arising over the distribution of water. This commission is
required to meet regularly potential dispute as cooperative arrangement for
development of basin.

 

The 65 year old Indus water treaty between India and Pakistan
has been instrumental in the peaceful shearing the water of Indus
and its attributes.

 

 

 

 

References:

·        
Indus
water treaty –Wikipedia

·        
Indus
water treaty World Bank 1960 pdf

·        
www.dystopic life.com

·        
www.slideshare.net.com

·        
www.quora.com

·        
www.clearis.com

·        
www.newspakistan.tv

·        
www.dailytime.com.pk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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