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Synthetic Plastic is the most dominant materials
have become an integral part of daily life because of It is widely used in
electronics, agriculture, medical and packaging matrials. Plastic is a non
biodegrdable products owing to their durability and resistance to degradation
led to accumulate in the environment (Prieto, 2016) at a rate of 25 million
tonnes per year (Evans and Furlong,
2003). Owing to increasing the production and
consumption of synthetic plastic has raised a major concern like the safe
disposal, solid waste management and the potential to affect the human health
as well as cause great harm to the environment (Thompson, 2009). The physical and
chemical methods for habitat cleanup also have many limitations with depletion
of fossil based petroleum reserves. Hence these all problems have created much
interest in the development of biodegradable plastics as a potential
alternative to the traditional plastics (Muhammadi et al, 2015). Biopolymer is
naturally formed, polymeric materials produced by all the living organisms. (Ghanbarzadeh
Almasi, 2013). It constitutes a significant part of biological
components. In this way it is clear that the carbon compound in the biopolymer
material is not from fossil origin (Technology Watch: Biopolymers, 2015). Biopolymers
have been widely used since the ancient time. These materials such as Leather,
natural rubber, wool, cotton and cork are still popular and specific
applications in market. The most abundant and common biopolymer is Cellulose
which constitutes of 33% of all plant component on Earth (Biopolymer, 2018). Mostly
biopolymers are bio-degradable with the action of micro-organisms. The
development of bio bussed polymer being biodegradable, biocompatible,
renewable, easily processed and ecofriendly. Hence, their various applications
range from being used in the packaging industry, agriculture, chemical industry
and medicine. The main brands of the bioplastic in the market are: Biopol,
Bionolle, Nature Works and Mater-Bi. Considering these all facts, large scale
production of these biodegradable polymers and their extensive use is critical
both to ensure offer an alternative sources of plastic and also for the
environment considered to be a potential solution (Zinn et al, 2001).  Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), polylactides,
aliphatic polyesters, polysaccharides, and the copolymers and/ blends or of
these (Kalia,
2016). The
polyhydroxyalkanoates to the group of polyoxoesters and due to its
thermoplastic properties it is gaining interest as a substitute for
petroplastics (Albuquerque
et al., 2007).  The
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters belong to various hydroxyalkanoates
that are the bioplastics completely synthesized by microorganisms (Zinn et al.,
2001). A number of bacteria including Alcaligenes eutrophus,
Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, methylotrophs, pseudomonads, and
recombinant Escherichia coli have been employed for the production of PHAs (Lee, 1996).

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