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Unit 5 Exam Review Guide:  DNA, Protein SynthesisName:Daniel KoganChapter 12Period:5Exam Date:Friday Jan. 26How to study for your Biology ExamReview class materials:Notes – go back through notes.  Highlight important words, reread your summaries, and quiz yourself by answering your Cornell questions.  You can also re-watch the lectures in Edpuzzle.Class Work and Activities – Go through each handout and each activity in Canvas.  Look for important concepts, vocabulary, and look for connections between the activities and your Vocab – go through the lists and learn all the words.  Look back through notes and class activities to see the words used in context.Textbook – go through the chapters in the textbook and look for examples, important words, concepts, etc.Complete this review guide:It is worth 50 points.You can either type your answers and submit on Canvas or print this out and turn in your review on paper (be sure to add in more space to write your answers).  You may use bullet points or complete sentences.This review guide is due on the day of the exam.Create a 3″x5″ index card to use on exam. It must be handwritten.  Chapter 121What type of macromolecule is DNA?  What is its monomer?DNA is a nucleic acid. And DNA’s monomer is nucleotides.2What are the scientific discoveries that led to Watson and Crick’s model of DNA?Which are the three molecules?  What are the four bases?  Ratio?What are the percentages of bases?What forms the rungs of the ladder?  The backbone?Which bases go together?  What holds them together?  How many?What is important about the two strands that make up the helix?3Draw and explain the process of DNA replication.  Describe how the new molecules relate to the original molecule and which enzymes are involved.  Include the terms (with the definition in context) replicated and unreplicated.DNA replication is when two similar copies of DNA from one DNA molecule.4Describe the relationship between DNA, histones, nucleosomes, chromatin, and chromosomes.  Draw and label a diagram.DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid carries instructions for the living organism’s growth. Histones are protein molecules where DNA is tightly coiled up. Chromatin is DNA wound up around chromatin. A nucleosome is the structure of an organism’s DNA. Chromosomes are structures that have genetic information. This information is passed from one generation to the next. The chromosomes are in the nucleus.5Draw a model of a chromosome.  Label and explain:What are introns and exons?  What are chromatids and sister chromatids?  An intron is an intervening sequence of DNA. An exon is an expressed sequence of DNA.6Explain three ways in which DNA and RNA differ.7List and describe the three types of RNA.8Describe the process of transcription.  Be sure to include where it takes place, what you start with and what you end with, and which molecules are involved.9Why is it necessary for a copy of DNA to be made in the nucleus by the mRNA?10Describe the process of translation.  Be sure to include where it takes place, what you start with and what you end with, and which molecules are involved.11How is the genetic code read?12What amino acids do the following codons code for?UGCCCCAGGGCA13Describe the difference between codons and anticodons.  Include where each is found and used in the process of protein synthesis.14What is made during protein synthesis?  Why is this important?15What is a mutation and how do they occur?16What is the difference between a gene mutation and a chromosomal mutation?17Name two types of mutations.  What do they have in common?  How are they different?  Give an     example of each. 18What would be the difference in effect between a substitution error and an insertion error?19Are all mutations bad for the individual?  Please explain.19What is the Central Dogma of DNA?

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