When using the

different methods that are used in angular measurement, there are usually

always errors in the accuracy of results. Efficient devices such as transits or

theodolites have been developed to rectify the error in magnetic compasses. The

theodolite utilizes a telescope for spotting distant objects, bubble levels for

ensuring that the angles are accurate, and two measurement wheels for

determining the vertical and horizontal angles. Transits are less complicated

than the theodolite although the components are fundamentally similar.

Although, there is a correlation with the distance between the instrument and

the target point. As the distance increases, the readings will become less

accurate.

Another method of angular measurement

is by using a total station which comprises electronic distance and angular

measuring techniques of the theodolite in a single unit. For measuring the intersection lines of sight, the vertical and horizontal

positions can be determined based on the control networks. The position of a

point about two axes gives the horizontal location. They are the prime meridian

and the equator lines which are also equivalent to the x and y coordinates on a

Cartesian plane.

Measurements in a surveying operation

are typically done in positional series. Beginning from control points, the

surveyors utilize the trigonometric ratios to determine the locations of

positions within the Cartesian axes. The errors that arise from the operation

are quantified by adding up the sum of the interior angles obtained from the

polygon formed on the plane. Since it is not possible to know the accuracy of

just a single angle, the traverse can be evaluated in its entirety to

distribute the errors across all the interior angles.

Triangulation is also a method of

angular measurement. It involves the use of a more equipped theodolite to

measure the horizontal sight distances electronically. As the name suggests,

triangulation measures the three inner angles of a triangle and the length of

one of the side. After that, trigonometric rules are applied to determine the

dimensions of the remaining distances.

One last method that is similar to

triangulation is trilateration. The procedure determines the positions of

points by using distances alone. It is relatively more straightforward to

perform since it is inexpensive and uses fewer tools. It eschews the angle

measurements and uses the trigonometric principle to d